Chloroquine inhibits autophagy in host tissues

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  1. Yur Guest

    Chloroquine inhibits autophagy in host tissues


    Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it.

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    Previous reports have described autophagy dependency of tumors in genetically engineered mouse models harboring deletions of Atg5 or Atg7. In most of these contexts, both tumor and normal host tissues are deficient for autophagy. Chloroquine is commonly used to study the role of endosomal acidification in cellular processes 2, 3, such as the signaling of intracellular TLRs. Moreover, Chloroquine inhibits autophagy as it raises the lysosomal pH, which leads to inhibition of both fusion of autophagosome with lysosome and lysosomal protein degradation 4. Chloroquine analog is a diprotic weak base. The unprotonated form of chloroquine diffuses spontaneously and rapidly across the membranes of cells and organelles to acidic cytoplasmic vesicles such as endosomes, lysosomes, or Golgi vesicles and thereby increases their pH Al‐Bari 2015.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead.

    Chloroquine inhibits autophagy in host tissues

    Hydroxychloroquine inhibits autophagy to potentiate., Chloroquine & Hydroxychloroquine supporting chemo.

  2. Chloroquine children
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  4. Chloroquine inhibits PTX-induced lymphatic metastasis to the lymph nodes. To further study the effect of PTX on lymphatic metastasis, we analyzed the sentinel lymph nodes Fig. 7.

    • Paclitaxel induces lymphatic endothelial cells autophagy..
    • Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs..
    • Hydroxychloroquine inhibits autophagy. - PubMed Central PMC.

    Treatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine results in a reversal of hypercoagulability in pancreatic cancer by diminishing NET mediated platelet aggregation and release of circulating tissue factor and improving coagulation index on TEG. Autophagy has emerged as a mechanism critical to both tumorigenesis and development of resistance to multiple lines of anti-cancer therapy. Therefore, targeting autophagy and alternative cell death pathways has arisen as a viable strategy for refractory tumors. The anti-malarial 4-aminoquinoline compounds chloroquine. Li, X. Lee, Y. Kang, Y. et al. Hypoxia-induced autophagy of stellate cells inhibits expression and secretion of lumican into microenvironment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

     
  5. jurgennt New Member

    the cause of the most lethal human malaria, chloroquine resistance is linked to multiple mutations in Pf CRT, a protein that likely functions as a transporter in the parasite’s digestive vacuole membrane. Drug resistance in malaria - World Health Organization CDC - Malaria - Diagnosis & Treatment United States. DRUG RESISTANT MALARIA CURRENT STATUS
     
  6. prokonsul83 New Member

    Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine typically is very well tolerated. Serious side effects are rare. The most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea, which often improve with time.

    Hydroxychloroquine, the drug that could stop COVID-19 - archyde
     
  7. Lopazioe Guest

    RheumaKnowledgy Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine Phosphate Monitoring Hydroxychloroquine is the preferred antimalarial because it is less toxic to the eye. Chloroquine is sometimes tolerated by patients who do not tolerate hydroxychloroquine. Ophthalmologic retinal and visual field testing should be performed at baseline or soon after drug initiation and then at 6 -12 month intervals.

    Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia